Additional Artist Research

Research for the following artists:

Andy Goldsworthy *        Richard Long            Ian Hamilton Finlay

H. Mompó                         Hanna Tuulikki         Eduardo Chillida

In the tutor feedback report the following additional artist research was suggested.  Research artists such as Andy Goldsworthy (1956- ) and Richard Long (1945- ). Perhaps even check out the work of Ian Hamilton Finlay (1925-2006) (if you ever get a chance to go to Dunsyre in the Pentland Hills visit Little Sparta, his beautiful garden) and his son Alec Finlay (1966- ) who further explores nature and our intervention of it.

*  Andy Goldsworthy (1956- ) research was completed in a previous section, see 4-2-2 Research: Andy Goldsworthy

Richard Long (1945- )
Richard Long’s has changed the face of British art since he started working.   His works have changed the concept and expanded the boundaries away from traditional materials of what is possible in drawing, sculpture and art in general.  He is acknowledged as on of his generations most influential artist.

At the core of much of his work is the activity of walking.  On some of these long walks around the world he gathers inspiration as well as the walk an its impression the work; the physical act of walking creates the drawing.  As noted by Emma Dexter Dexter (Dexter 2005) in her Introduction to ‘Vitamin D’.  “The idea is simply to ”walk back and forth until the grass is trodden into an evident line””

Fig. 1. A Line Made by Walking (1976)

In a field in Wiltshire he paused in his hitch-hiking and then proceeded to walk to and fro until the grass was flatten and the line became visible as a line, a mark of his physical interventions within the landscape.  This photo records that intervention. (Tate, 2018)

His sculptures are usually formed by minerals native to their location and often take the form of geometric shapes—circles, lines, ellipses, and spirals.  These works are often on location but when working on more conventional canvas he also incorporates these mineral materials such as mud and earth into the work.

Long’s work in native materials on location are left in place and await nature claim to take them back where they will then erase any trace of his intervention.  His interventions are general on a small scale and thus having minimal impact on the landscape.  He makes small gestures with grand meanings and allows the beauty of nature to be the star of the show, the true artwork.

As many of his works are small and often missed by viewers he photographs them and they are shown in galleries, recording and isolating them from nature and their location.  The photo becoming the artwork.  He notes “even though a lot of my work takes place in the landscape, the gallery is the conduit for bringing my work into the public domain”   (The Art Story, 2018)

List of Illustrations   

Fig. 1. Long, Richard. (1976). A Line Made by Walking. [Photograph, gelatin silver print on paper and graphite on board]. At: (Accessed on 20 Feb 2018)

Fig. 2. Long, Richard. (2004). River Avon mud circles, France [mud]. At: (Accessed on 20 Feb 2018)

Fig. 3. Long, Richard. (1979). Throwing stones into a circle, a six day walk in the Atlas Mountains, Morocco 1979 [online photograph]. At: (Accessed on 20 Feb 2018)

Fig. 4. Long, Richard. (2003). Full moon circle, Houghton Hall, England [online photograph]. At: (Accessed on 20 Feb 2018)

Fig. 5. Long, Richard. (1986). White Foot Circles, Porin Taidemuseo Finland 1986 [online photograph]. .At::  (Accessed on 20 Feb 2018)

Fig. 6. Long, Richard. (1991). Untitled, Galerie Tschudi Glarus Switzerland [online photograph]. At:  (Accessed on 20 Feb 2018)

Fig. 7. Long, Richard. (nd ). Untitled drawing [online photograph]. At: (Accessed on 20 Feb 2018)


Dexter, Emma; (2005), Vitamin D – New Perspectives in Drawing, Phaidon Press Ltd, New York & London

The Art Story. (2018). Richard Long Biography, Art, and Analysis of Works. [online] Available at: (Accessed on 20 Feb 2018)

Tate. (2018). ‘A Line Made by Walking’, Richard Long, 1967 | Tate. [online] Available at: (Accessed on 20 Feb 2018)

Ian Hamilton Finlay (1925-2006)

Fig 1. Ian Hamilton Finlay (nd)

Little Sparta Garden

Tucked away in the hills outside Edinburgh is an old farm that has been transformed and re-purposed.  Over many years starting in 1966 it has been piece by piece emerged to become a the most celebrated twentieth century garden in Scotland.  Created by Ian Hamilton Finlay, a poet and gardener and his wife and later continued by their son Alec Finlay.  Finlay’s concept was to have a garden poem.   He combines interesting layouts intuitive planting, sculpture along with poetry placed strategically in the space.

Finlay’s concept was to marry the space with its contents and surroundings.  He noted: “Usually each area gets a small artefact, which reigns like a small deity or spirit of place. My understanding is that the work is the whole composition – the artefact in its context. The work is not an isolated object, but an object with flowers, plants, trees, water and so on”.  Ref 1

Fig 2. Little Sparta Garden Map (nd)

For much of Finlay’s life he fought a battle with the art establishment and in particular the Scottish Arts Council.  Edinburgh is known as “Athens of the North”.  The traditional enemy of Athens was Sparta, hence he renamed Stoneypath Farm, his poetry farm as ‘.Little Sparta’

In the ‘60’s he became interested in ‘Concrete Poetry’ with many of the gardens works created by his utilising quotes.

One of the works is a set of eleven massive blocks of stone [The Present Order], each with a word carved on the top.  The quote is an attribution to Saint-Just, the implacable ideologue of the French Revolution, intended as a rebuke to a corrupt society.   They seem to be the ruins of some great building.

Various elements of Little Sparta

Fig 4. The Present Order (nd)





The quote noted above can be re-arranged to give the opposite meaning, Finlay’s sense of humour and his love of hidden and second meaning being evident.

The gardens can be visited during the summer months.

Additional related works: Lost Gardens of Heligan

These Gardens are on my must see list, though I don’t know when I may see them in the flesh.  Whilst researching Ian Hamilton Finlay I stumbled across a couple of websites with photos of environmental art including those below.  These add a bit of fun to environmental art.  Much environmental art can be ‘missed’ by those not normally interested in art.  These pieces and objects in the Gardens of Heligan pique their interest and draw then in where another, less subtle pieces may pass them by.

Lost Gardens of Heligan

List of Illustrations   

Fig 1. Finlay, Ian Hamilton (nd).  Ian Hamilton Finlay at Little Sparta.  [online photograph]. At:  [Accessed on 20  Feb 2018]

Fig 2. Finlay, Ian Hamilton (nd). Little Sparta Garden Map [online photograph]. At:  [Accessed on 20  Feb 2018]

Fig 3. Finlay, Ian Hamilton (nd). Classical Head [online photograph]. At:  [Accessed on 20  Feb 2018]

Fig 4. Finlay, Ian Hamilton (nd). The Present Order  [online photograph]. At:  http [Accessed on 20  Feb 2018]

Fig 5. Finlay, Ian Hamilton (nd). Classical Column  [online photograph]. At:  [Accessed on 20  Feb 2018]

Fig 6. Finlay, Ian Hamilton (nd). Classical Column across Pond  [online photograph]. At:  [Accessed on 20  Feb 2018]

Fig 7. Finlay, Ian Hamilton (nd).  Across Little Sparta Garden  [ online photograph]. At:  At:  [Accessed on 20  Feb 2018]

Fig 8. . Lost Gardens of Heligan #1 (nd). [ online photograph].  At: [Accessed on 20  Feb 2018]

Fig 9. . Hall Marney and Yarrow,  Heather. (nd). Garden of Dreams,  [online photograph]. At:  [Accessed on 20  Feb 2018]

Fig 10. . Lost Gardens of Heligan #2 (nd) [ online photograph].  At:  [Accessed on 20  Feb 2018]

Fig 11.  Lost Gardens of Heligan #3 (nd) [ online photograph].  At: [Accessed on 20  Feb 2018]


Bibliography         [Accessed on 20  Feb 2018]

Campbell, J. (2018). Ian Hamilton Finlay: the concrete poet as avant gardener. [online] the Guardian. Available at: [Accessed on 20  Feb 2018] (2018). Little Sparta. [online] Available at: [Accessed on 20  Feb 2018]

Gillanders, R. and Finlay, A. (1998). Little Sparta. Edinburgh: National Galleries of Scotland. (2018). MP | Little Sparta. [online] Available at: [Accessed on 20  Feb 2018]

Research suggested by Tutor : H. Mompó & Hanna Tuulikki

Tutor feedback on section 3 noted additional artists for research.  Noted below are another two artists with research relevant for this section of the course and the course in general.

H. Mompó

Spanish 1927 – 1992

aka Hernandez Mompó or Manuel  H. Mompó , Spanish 1927 – 1992

Fig 1: Untitled (Two Figures), (1955)

Mompó was born in Valencia, Spain and studied art here.  In the 1950’s he was one of the more renown of the Spanish abstract artists.  In his younger years he moved throughout Europe staying in several places including Rome, Paris and Holland.  It was in Holland that he met Mondrian, who later became one of the major influences on Mompó.

With his early works generally done in a figurative manner (see fig 1) Mompó gradually moved towards a more abstract depiction of his subject much like his major influence Mondrian.  Much of his work is done using gouache and oil on paper.  A regular motif in his work were the everyday life around him in particular street scenes and popular festivals. (See fig 2)

The works are generally small brightly coloured graphics in an abstract manner giving his interpretation of the urban themes he depicted.  Each of his works contains a narrative element.  This narrative is done in a simple almost comic or doodled style using bright colours and abstract shapes.

Fig 2: Mercado (1969)

An example of this is his painting “Mercado (1969)”.  The subject of this painting is the Mercado, the market.    Mompó uses the everyday urban scene of the market place for his subject.  He suggests the chaos and colour of the market place with abstract shapes positioned across the page some with bright colours but often a muted grey or blue.  Much of the page is blank with spaces between the elements of the painting.  These spaces between the elements is usually typical of Mompó’s work but here may signify the market stalls each having a separate pitch and the spaces and aisles between them.  The hustle and bustle are represented by the small tight drawing places and the twisting, spinning shapes around the page.

List of Illustrations   

Fig 1. Mompó, H., (1955), Untitled (Two Figures), [wax crayon on paper], At: http://www A1ndez-momp %C3%B3/untitled-two-figures-SX9B94h 6f2XrO2nWtH51wA2 (Accessed on 20 Feb 2018)

Fig 2. Mompó, , (1969), Mercado, [mixed media on canvas], At: (Accessed on 20 Feb 2018)

Fig 3. Mompó, H., (1984), Sin título [Without Title] [screenprint] At: (Accessed on 20 Feb 2018)

Fig 4. Mompó, H., (nd), Window on a landscape [ ] At: (Accessed on 20 Feb 2018)

Fig 5. Mompó, (nd Without Title), [ ]. At: (Accessed on 20 Feb 2018)



Fundaion Juan March. (2018). Manuel Hernández Mompó  [online] Available at: . (Accessed on 20 Feb 2018)

Picassomio, (2018). Manuel H Mompo [online] Available at:  (Accessed on 20 Feb 2018)

Hanna Tuulikki

A Finnish – English artist, musician, and vocalist born in 1982 in Sussex.  Having studied Environmental Art at Glasgow here practise now involves various projects.  These projects are joint collaborations with others bringing together various elements such as vocalists, drawing and recordings made from nature.  This has cumulated in her most recent project for Score in 2014 called “Away with the Birds”.

This project was four years in the making with its cumulation a performance on the Isle of Canna, Hebrides, Scotland, in the summer of 2014.  It was commissioned as one of the closing events of the Glasgow 2014 Cultural Programme.

The website for the project has a body of work comprising several hours of music, commentary and dialogue plus film and field recordings of bird song and the sounds of nature along with drawings, songs and poetry.

Tuulikki combines various natural elements to create not just a visual event such as a drawing or installation but an event that resonates with several senses.  Your eyes and ears are the main senses simulated but this triggers your sense of smell to evoke the salt spray as you listen to the waves on the shore and whisper of the wind in the location recordings.

Another project Tuulikki has been involved in have been utilised projected images of flora and fauna silhouettes onto a row of condemned and boarded up houses in Dunfermline.  This blend of performance art along with the other elements including musical composition, drawing, costume and site recordings create a story of the land and nature and though she has vocals in her work they often recreate the sounds of nature rather than of man.  Where the sound of man (or in this case woman) is hear it is in harmony with nature rather than opposing it.

Her work lends a harmony to the environment and natural landscape far removed from the urban destruction wrought by man as he uses nature to his own ends.  Tuulikki work harks back to an ancient time where man and nature were in balance and harmony.


Tuulikki, H, (2013 -14), Spinning in Stereo

(2013-14) composition, LP, visual score, installation

spinning-in-stereo is a composition for two voices, presented as an installation: visual score.  The piece adopts a traditional Gaelic spinning song, ‘Oran Snìomhaidh’, as the basis of a circular score. Beginning with elongated tones and ending with a steady pulse, the arrangement moves through fourteen revolutions, each with a different emphasis in terms of time, rhythm and/or pitch.  As it turns on the record player, spinning-in-stereo echoes the cyclical, rhythmic nature of working with wool, from caring for the sheep out on the hill, to carding, spinning, and the waulking of the tweed, with it’s renowned song tradition.

Away with the Birds

Noted on Baltic Arts website What’s On (2017)

“ HANNA TUULIKKI – Away with the Birds – 1 June – 24 September 2017

Hanna Tuulikki’s Air falbh leis na h-eòin | Away with the Birds is a body of work exploring the mimesis and representation of birds in the Scottish Gaelic song tradition. The composition, visual score and suite of habitat drawings are presented here, highlighting BALTIC’s connection to birdlife, which annually provides a temporary home to a number of the estimated 800 pairs of breeding kittiwakes in Newcastle Gateshead Quayside.

Tuulikki’s vocal composition, Guth an Eòin | Voice of the Bird sits at the heart of the project. Written for a female ensemble, the piece reinterprets archive recordings, texts, and living traditions, weaving together fragments of Gaelic song that imitate birdsong and bird calls, into a textural tapestry of sound, emerging from and responding to landscape.

Over five movements, the composition guides us through communities of waders, seabirds, wildfowl and corvids, evoking sea, shoreline, cliffs, moor and woodland habitats. The group sing the sea and the winds. They sing the motion of birds – wading on the shoreline and swooping before the cliffs.

Developed over a four year period, the work culminated in a performance event on the Isle of Canna, in the Scottish Hebrides, in August 2014. The performance took place in the harbour, on a specially constructed wooden platform with an innovative sound system suspended in the water. The music responds to the island’s topography, the co-existence of tradition and innovation, and the delicate equilibrium of island life in Scotland.           (Baltic Arts 2017)

List of Illustrations   

Fig 1. Tuulikki, H, (2014), Away with the Birds (Oystercatcher), ,At: (Accessed on 21 Feb 2018)

Fig 2. Tuulikki, H, (2014), Away with the Birds (Hooper Swans), At: (Accessed on 21 Feb 2018)

Fig 3. Tuulikki, H, (2014), Away with the Birds (Redshank), At: ttp://  (Accessed on 21 Feb 2018)

Fig 4. Tuulikki, H, (2014), Away with the Birds (Hooper Swan and Raven), At: (Accessed on 21 Feb 2018)

Fig 5. Tuulikki, H, (2013 -14), spinning-in-stereo, At: (Accessed on 21 Feb 2018)

Fig 6. Tuulikki, H, (2013 -14), spinning-in-stereo, At: (Accessed on 21 Feb 2018)


Baltic Arts (2017), Away with the Birds, [online] At: (Accessed on 21 Feb 2018) (2018). Hanna Tuulikki. [online] Available at:  (Accessed on 21 Feb 2018) (2018). Hanna Tuulikki. [online] Available at:  (Accessed on 21 Feb 2018)

Score (2017), Away with the Birds, [online] At: (Accessed on 21 Feb 2018)

Tuulikki, H, (2014), Spinning in Stereo, [online] At: (Accessed on 21 Feb 2018)

Eduardo Chillida

Lived from 1924 to 2002, he was a Spanish Basque sculptor renowned for his monumental abstract works, as well his drawings and other artistic output.  However, initially he settled on a footballing career as a goalkeeper until a serious knee injury ended that promising career.  He then embarked on a series of studies in architecture.  However, he abandoned this after three years finally settling on the study of art.  He moved to Paris opening a studio and commenced private lessons in art as he had not completed his degree.  He returned to Spain after spending several years in France and marrying.

Fig 1: Monumento, Thyssen-Hochhaus, Düsseldorf, Germany (1971)

Initially making sculpture in plaster he soon abandoned his to work in iron as well as granite.  Much of his work concentrated on the human form (torsos and busts), massive in scale and abstract.  However, he rejected this abstract label saying he worked as a “realist sculptor

Despite the massive scale of his sculptural works they have a sense of movement and tension.  Usually labelled with his native Basque language titles he has found fame around much of the globe with his works both widespread and prominent.

His works on paper and in some part preparation drawings for his sculptural works but also works in their own right..  his drawing style is reminiscent at times of early Picasso.  Many of his drawings are done in a bold dark line showing a confidence to depict the figure or hands.  They are done from life and this shows as they as they have an immediacy and direct presence.

List of Illustrations   

Fig 1. Chillida, Eduardo, (1971), Monumento, At: https://en. File:Chillida_monumento_vor_thyssen_ d%C3%BCsseldorf.jpg (Accessed on 26 Feb 2018)

Fig 2. Chillida, Eduardo, (c 1985), Hand ,[ charcoal on laid paper], At:   (Accessed on 26 Feb 2018)

Fig 3. Chillida, Eduardo, (1972), Homenaje a Picasso” [Aquatint etching } At: /fr/artists /Chillida/Chillida_Exhibition_2008.html (Accessed on 26 Feb 2018)

Fig 4. Chillida, Eduardo, (1949), Figure Drawing, [graphite on paper], At: (Accessed on 26 Feb 2018)

Fig 5. Chillida, Eduardo, (1950), Reclining Woman, At: 86156/

Bibliography (2018). Annely Juda Fine Art | Exhibitions | Eduardo Chillida: Fifty Years of Drawing (2003). [online] Available at:  (Accessed on 26 Feb 2018) (2018). Eduardo_Chillida – 112 Artworks, Bio & Shows on Artsy. [online] At:  (Accessed on 26 Feb 2018) (2018). Eduardo_Chillida [online] At:  (Accessed on 26 Feb 2018)